Variola is also known as smallpox, is a highly infectious disease nonpareil to humans. Smallpox (variola) is caused by variola virus, a member of the Poxviridae family. It was so named due to the pocks were small and the disease was observed as less than the "great pox" (syphilis). It is fearurized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules which form scabs that morass off leaving scars. Variola virus is spread by the aerosol route and has an incubation period of 7 - 17 days.
There are two medical forms of smallpox. V. major is the more deadly form, with a typical mortality of 20-40 percent of those infected. The manifestation clinical features include a three-day prodromal illness individualized by fever, headache, backache, and vomiting. Variola Minor is also known as Variola alastrim and is another virus which causes smallpox, along with Variola Major. Some rely that other countries such as Iraq, Iran, and North Korea may also hold some stores of the smallpox virus.
Smallpox now inheres only (hopefully) in the freezers of research laboratories at two sites in the world. Patients suffering from smallpox may be helped by intravenous fluids, medicine to regulate fever or pain, and antibiotics for any secondary bacterial infections which may occur. One of the perfect ways to prevent smllpox is through vaccination. Vaccination will not prevent smallpox patients who already have a rash.
Causes of Variola
The common Causes of Variola :
- The variola is primarily caused by virus called- variola major and minor virus .
- It's most frequently transmitted in air droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks .
- It is a contagious disease. The virus could be transferred from one person to another in a number of ways.
- Smallpox also can spread through contact with contaminated clothing and bedding, though the risk of infection from these sources is slender.
- Exposure to viruses of the Poxviridae family can also causes these infections.
- Variola could be released by aerosol and it would spread easily because the virus remains very braced in aerosol form.
Symptoms of Variola
Some Symptoms of Variola :
- High fever ,
- Severe muscle aches
- Severe headache and Backache.
Treatment of Variola
- If the smallpox vaccination is given within 1-4 days of exposure to the disease, it may prevent illness, or at least reduce the degree of illness related with the disease.
- Occassionally antibiotics are given for secondary infections that may occur.
- Cidofovir may have some activity against these poxviruses.
- When the skin is hot and dry , give him fluids every hour till there is free perspiration.
- The exposed persons would need to be segregated immediately .
- Keep the sick person in bed with the windows darkened .
- Hot fomentations can partially relieve pain in the legs and back.