Atopic dermatitis is a protracted disease that affects the skin. It is also known as eczema and atopic eczema. Atopic dermatitis has been coveraged to affect 10 percent of children. Atopic dermatitis excruciates humans, particularly young children; it is also a well-characterized disease in domestic dogs. The veracious etiology of AD is unknown. It is immunologically mediated, with a large majority of affected patients having raised serum immunoglobulin E concentrations, though no relationship exists between IgE levels and severity of disease. It is a disease of great morbidness, and the incidence appears to be increasing.
Atopic dermatitis usually develops in people who have an 'atopic tendency'. This means they may from any or all of three closely associated conditions; atopic dermatitis, asthma and hay fever (allergic rhinitis). It is the most common form of dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is differentiated as an immediate (type I) hypersensitivity reaction similar to that of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy.
Atopic dermatitis is very common. There is no remedy for it, but its symptoms can be controlled with various treatments. Many children maturate a 'nummular' pattern of atopic dermatitis. Dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis seldom have respiratory disease, but may be afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease. This refers to small coin-resembling areas of eczema scattered over the body. It affects males and females and responsible for 10 to 20 percent of all visits to dermatologists.
Atopic dermatitis is the most common of the many types of eczema. Many have very similar symptoms. There are typically three episodes in atopic dermatitis, each with fairly distinctive features. The first infant phase, appears between birth and the age of two, the second childhood stage appears between the ages of two and 12, and the third adult stage appears from the age of 12 and up. The evaluation of atopic dermatitis is based on the findings of the history and physical examination. People with eczema often have a family history of allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever, or eczema.
Causes of Atopic Dermatitis
The common causes and risk factor's of Atopic Dermatitis include the following:
- The exect cause of atopic dermatitis is obscure.
- Genetic (hereditary) factors.
- Environmental factors.
- A plethora of potential aggravants, both allergic and non-allergic.
- Cigarette smoke.
- Potential triggers include excessive bathing, swimming, hand washing, and lip licking.
- The disease is linked with other so-called atopic disorders such as hay fever and asthma, which many people suffering from atopic dermatitis also have.
Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis
Some symptoms related to Atopic Dermatitis are as follows:
- Dry and itchy skin.
- Blisters with oozing and crusting.
- Rashes on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees, and on the hands and feet.
- Thick skin.
- Atopic dermatitis may also affect the skin sorrounding the eyes, the eyelids, and the eyebrows and lashes.
- Ear discharges/bleeding.
- Small bumps that open and weep when scratched.
Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
Here is list of the methods for treating Atopic Dermatitis:
- Patients having refractory Atopic dermatitis may benefit from oral immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporine A. This cure is effective in treating severe AD in the acute setting.
- Most patients can be successfully managed with proper skin care and lifestyle alterations and do not require the more intense treatments discussed.
- New medications named as immuno-modulators have been developed that help control inflammation and reduce immune system reactions when applied to the skin.
- Patient compliance and co operation are vital in the successful management of atopic dermatitis.
- Mild anti-itch lotions or topical corticosteroids (low potency) may soothe less severe or healing areas, or dry scaly lesions.
- A topical steroid should be applied immediately after bathing. It should not be used more than twice a day.